This session will concentrate on epidemiological principles and methods. We will look at specific methods to be employed for different types of study design. Methods for understanding large collected samples of data will be explored and methods of presenting will be discussed, including stratification and standardisation methods.
Study designs (case control studies, cohort studies, intervention studies). Asking the right questions. Causation and prevention. The role of bias, confounding, validity and generalisability, dose-response relationships. Cumulative incidence and incidence density. Relationship between prevalence and incidence. Crude, category specific and standardised rates (direct and indirect). Relative risks and odds ratios. Standardised mortality ratios, proportional mortality ratios. Attributable risk, population attributable risk, absolute risk, numbers needed to treat. Proportional hazards. Confidence intervals for relative risk. Sample size and statistical power.